International Auxiliary Languages

Romanova Interlanguage

Bono di'a, i benvenido al Projeto Romanova! Si tu pode leser esto tecsto, donse la lingua nova ce nus clama Romanova sta funsionando multo bien! Nus ave produsido esta lingua con la speransa ce todos los parladores de las linguas roma'nicas modernas podera' comunicar eficasemente entre se. La lingua nova consiste de tres mil vocablos, mas o menos, i elo fu formado di vocablos prendidos di todas las cuatro linguas roma'nicas maiores: el espaniese, el fransiese, el italiese, i el portugalese.

Good day, and welcome to the Romanova project! If you can read this text (above), then the new language that we call Romanova is working very well! We have created this language in the hope that all the speakers of the modern Romance languages will be able to communicate efficiently among themselves. The new language consists of three thousand words, more or less, and it was formed from words taken from all four major Romance languages: Spanish, French, Italian, and Portuguese.


Latin a b c d e f g i j l m n o p r s t u v
IPA a b k d e f ɡ i/j ʃ l m n o p ɾ s t u/w v
Cyrillic а б к д е ф г и/й ш л м н о п р с т у в

Other Notes on pronunciation[]

The rr is pronounced as a trill, as in Rrrrruffles have rrrridges. Since j is like the sh in shop, the combination tj is pronounced like ch in chip, and the combination nj is pronounced like the nch in lunch. The stress on words is similar to that of Spanish; an apostrophe after a vowel shows that it is stressed. For words without an apostrophe (the vast majority), words ending in a vowel or the letter s are stressed on the next-to-last syllable. Words ending in a consonant other than s are stressed on the last syllable.
The letters i and u are semivowels (pronounced like y in yes and w in win) when followed by any vowel, or when preceded by a, e, or o, so i and u don't count as separate syllables in this case, unless they're followed by an apostrophe, which shows that they are full, stressed vowels:
ai as in aisle. ei as in weigh. oi as in void.
au as in sauerkraut. ia as ya in yacht.
ie as ye in yet. io as yo in yo-yo.
ui as wee in sweet. iu as u in useful.
Proper nouns and words from other languages may be left in their native spelling, or optionally changed to Romanova spelling. Optionally, an acute accent mark may be placed above a vowel instead of putting an apostrophe after it. Capital letters are optional in Romanova. The slash (/) may optionally be used instead of the period at the end of a sentence. The letter s may be pronounced like the z in zoo when followed by a voiced consonant. Both the r and rr may optionally be pronounced as either a flap or a trill. Both b and v may optionally be pronounced as in Spanish.

Names of the Letters[]

Note: When spelling aloud, to make it clear which letter you are saying,
you may also say "v" de "victoria", etc.

Letter: a b c d e f g (h) i j (k) l m
Name: a be ce de e fe ge (aj) i je (ca) le me

Letter: n o p (q) r s t u v (w) (x) (y) (z)
Name: ne o pe (cu) re se te u ve (ue) (ecse) (ie) (sa)

Brief grammar of Romanova[]

No grammatical gender.

Although there are alternative words that look like those showing grammatical gender in the Romance languages, these are entirely optional, and are mainly allowed so that Romance-speakers may use familiar forms.

No declension of nouns and adjectives.

No personal verb inflexions.

The verbs of Romanova differ only for tense (present, past, perfect, etc.).

Articles in Romanova[]

The singular definite article is el (alternatively, la may also be used, with no distinction of meaning). The plural definite article is los (alternatively, las may also be used, with no distinction of meaning). The only written contractions are del and al, which are optional contractions of de el and a el. In pronunciation, but not in writing, the articles el and la may optionally lose their vowels when followed by a word beginning with a vowel. For example, la isla may be pronounced lisla, and el ome may be pronounced lome. The indefinite article is un (alternatively, una may also be used, with no distinction of meaning).

Nouns in Romanova[]

To make a noun or an adjective plural, if it ends in a vowel, add -s. If it ends in a consonant or semivowel, add -es. Examples: el soldado valente, los soldados valentes; una madre bona, madres bonas; el rei, los reies; multas personas intelijentes fase el error de creder ce eles es stu'pidas, i eles gania confidensa en lora intelijensa solamente depo'is multa esperiensa en la vida; un punto interesante; ocurrensas improbables; la asersion es incredible; los puntos es interesantes.

Adjectives in Romanova[]

The adjective of Romanova is pluralized in concordance with the noun. Optionally, and with no distinction of meaning, adjectives (and adjectives used as nouns) ending in -o (and the plural -os) may change this ending to -a (and the plural -as). This is completely optional and does not imply any difference of gender in Romanova. (This is mainly allowed so that Romance-speakers won't have to change this ingrained speech habit.) Adjectives go after their nouns. Articles (the, a), numbers (four, third, many), possessives (my, our), and demonstratives (this, those) go before their nouns. Adjectives can also be used like nouns, e.g. el rojo can mean the red one.

Adverbs in Romanova[]

Most adverbs of Romanova are derived from adjectives by adding -mente to the end of the adjective. If the adjective ends in -o, this must be changed to -a. Some common adverbs have a unique form, not derived from an adjective. Examples: ra'pido, rapidamente; suave, suavemente; nasional, nasionalmente; bono, bien.

Comparison of adjectives and adverbs[]

Comparative adjectives and adverbs are expressed by mas, superlatives by el mas or by the suffix -i'sim-. Less is expressed by menos and the least by el menos. Examples: interesante, mas interesante, el mas interesante, interesanti'sime; madres bonas, madres mas bonas, las madres mas bonas, las madres boni'simas; frecuentemente, menos frecuentemente, el menos frecuentemente. Cualce lingua es tanto interesante como todas las otras linguas. Todas las linguas es igualmente interesantes. Nustra grama'tica es mas breve ce nustro dicsionario. Entre suos amigos, eli es el mas interesante. Eles es tuos amigos boni'simos. Marte es un planeta bastante grande, ma la terra es mas grande. La terra es tamben mas grande ce Mercurio. El planeta Urano es multo mas grande ce Marte ma menos grande ce Ju'piter. El planeta Venus es cuasi tanto grande como la terra.

The pronouns of Romanova[]

Personal pronouns[]

The personal pronouns of Romanova, except for the first and second persons plural, have two distinct forms. The first form is used for subjects, and the second form is used for all other uses, including objects. Subject pronouns precede the verb, but may follow it in direct questions. Object pronouns may always follow the verb. Direct object pronouns may also directly precede the verb, unless the verb is an infinitive, a participle, or an imperative. Direct object pronouns and nouns may optionally be preceded by the word pe in any case where it may otherwise be difficult to distinguish subject from direct object. Indirect object pronouns and nouns are preceded by the word a. When saying something or writing something to a person, the person is the indirect object, e.g. Eli interrogo' a me si io fuma; io disio' a li ce no. (He asked me if I smoke; I told him no.) Reflexive pronouns are used with transitive verbs when the subject performs the action on himself, as in to dress yourself.

Table of Personal Pronouns of Romanova












3rd, male




3rd, female



3rd, neutral












Since the i in io is a semivowel, io is pronounced like yo in yo-yo. The word vos may also be used for the singular you to show respect. The neutral pronoun may be used for any thing, or for any person or animal, regardless of sexual gender. In impersonal constructions, no pronoun is used: Sta pluvendo (It's raining); Ave un problema (There is a problem.). In second person imperatives, no pronoun is used: Corre! Aiuda me! For imperatives not for the second person, the verb deve is followed by the infinitive: Nus deve parter! (Let's leave!); Eles deve manjar pastel! (Let them eat cake!); Deve aver luse! (Let there be light!)

The term uno or una persona is used for an indeterminate person: Uno parla el fransiese en Fransia, i.e., El fransiese es parlado en Fransia.

Interrogative pronouns:
How: como
How (followed by adjective or adverb): cuanto
How many: cuantos
How much: cuanto
What: ce, ce cosa(s)
What kind of: ce tipo de, ce tipos de
When: cuando
Where: donde
Which: cual, cuales
Who: cien, cienes
Whom: (pe) cien, (pe) cienes
Whose: cuo, cuos (Plural is for multiple possessions, not owners. Stress is on the u.)
Why: por ce
Examples: Ce sinifica esto? Io no sabe. De ce vos pensa? De la grama'tica de Romanova.
Cien tiene la clave de esta porta? Alberto lo tiene. A cienes eli ave dado los libros?
Eli les ave dado a Mari'a i a Carla. Cuo libro es esto? (Whose book is this?)

Relative pronouns[]

The word ce may be used with any noun or pronoun, and the word cien (plural: cienes) may be used with persons. Examples: El infanto ce tiene la clave es en el jardin. El infanto a cien tu ave dado la clave abreva la porta. La infanta ce saludava vos es mia sora (The girl who greeted you is my sister). La infanta pe cien vos saludava es mia sora (The girl whom you greeted is my sister). El libro ce tu ave perdido es aora en la biblioteca (Referring to the particular book that you lost). El libro, ce mia sora leseva fas una semana, es aora en la biblioteca (Referring to a book that my sister just happened to have been reading).

Possessives in Romanova[]

When possessives refer to plural nouns, they are pluralized. The endings -o (and the plural -os) may optionally be changed to -a (and the plural -as) without distinction of meaning. The following words are stressed on the i: mio, mios, mia, mias. The following words are stressed on the u: tuo, tuos, tua, tuas, suo, suos, sua, suas, cuo, cuos, cua, cuas.

Table of Possessives of Romanova








el mio



el tuo



el suo




el nustro



el vostro



el loro

The Demonstrative Adjectives and Pronouns of Romanova[]

This: esto (alternatively esta).
These: estos (alternatively estas).
That: eso (alternatively esa).
Those: esos (alternatively esas).

The Verbs of Romanova[]

The verbs of Romanova have no personal endings. Infinitives end in -ar and -er.

Simple Forms of the Verb of Romanova














Past Imperfect












Present Participle



Past Participle



The present and imperative

are like the infinitive without the final -r.

The indicative and the subjunctive

are identical.

The past imperfect

is formed from the infinitive by changing the final -r to -va.

The preterite

is formed from the infinitive by changing the final -ar to -o' and the final -er to -io' (a diphthong).

The future

is formed by adding -a' to the infinitive. An alternative future is formed by putting the word va before the infinitive: io va manjar lo.

The conditional

is formed by adding -i'a to the infinitive: si io lo teneva, io lo dari'a a te.

The present participle

is formed from the infinitive by changing the final -r to -ndo.

The past participle

is formed from the infinitive by changing the final -ar to -ado and the final -er to -ido.

Only a few verbs and their derivatives are irregular in Romanova, and those with asterisks are irregular in spelling only, because of the apostrophes:
To be: ser. Present: es; preterite: fu; past imperfect: era; imperative: sea.
To come: vener. Present and imperative: viene.
To flow (and other verbs ending in -uer or -uar): fluer. Present and imperative: flu'e*.
To go: andar. Present and imperative: va.
To have, hold: tener. Present and imperative: tiene.
To hear: oier. Preterite: oio'; past participle: oi'do.
To meet, rendezvous: reuner se. Present and imperative: reu'ne*.
To photograph (and other verbs ending in -grafiar): fotografiar. Present and imperative: fotografi'a*.
To prohibit: proiber. Present and imperative: proi'be*.
To send: enviar. Present and imperative: envi'a*.
To want: cerer. Present and imperative: ciere.
To attract (and other verbs ending in -aer): atraer. Past participle: atrai'do*.

Active perfect verbs[]

are formed with the verb aver:

Active Perfect Verb Forms of Romanova


Present Perfect

io (tu, etc.) ave cantado, partido

Past Perfect

io (tu, etc.) aveva cantado, partido

Future Perfect

io (tu, etc.) avera' cantado, partido

Conditional Perfect

io (tu, etc.) averi'a cantado, partido

Example of a variety of these forms in context

io ave lesido en la Interrede ce una dama europana de sisenta anios ave fasido una filia naser en un ospital en Israel depo'is aver indicado ce ela teneva solamente cuarenta oto anios. El me'dico, stupefasido, diseva ce eli jama'is averi'a dado a la dama una trasplantasion de ovos si eli aveva sabido sua eda' vera.
En eso tempo, toda la terra parlava la mesma lingua. Cuando la jente emigro' di la rejon del oriente, eles descubrio' una sona plana en la rejon de Sinar, i ala' eles resto' par resider. Un di'a, algunas personas disio' a otras: "Nus deve faser blocos de arjila, i cosinar les en el fogo." Asi', eles uso' blocos enve's de piedras i asfalto natural enve's de mortiero. Pois eles disio': "Viene, nus deve costruer una jida' i una torre ce contactara' el sielo. De esta manera, nus sera' famosos i nus no devera' ser dispersados atrave's toda la terra". Ma el senior Dio desendio' par ver la jida' i la torre ce la jente costrueva, i eli penso': "Eles es una sola jente i eles parla una sola lingua; por eso, eles ave comensado esto travaio, i por nada del mundo eles va sesar de faser lo. Seri'a mas bono ce nus desende par confunder lora lingua, par ce eles no comprendera' entre se." Asi' fu ce el senior Dio les disperso' atrave's toda la terra, i eles seso' de costruer la jida'. En esa localida', el senior Dio confundio' la lingua de toda la jente de la terra, i di ala' eli les disperso' atrave's todo el mundo. Por eso, la jida' es clamada "Babel".

Passive verbs[]

are formed with the verb ser:

Simple Passive Verb Forms of Romanova


Present passive

io (tu, etc.) es creado, prendido

Past passive

io (tu, etc.) fu creado, prendido

Future passive

io (tu, etc.) sera' creado, prendido

Conditional passive

io (tu, etc.) seri'a creado, prendido

Passive perfect verbs[]

are formed with aver sido:

Passive Perfect Verb Forms of Romanova


io (tu, etc.) ave sido creado, prendido

Past perfect

io (tu, etc.) aveva sido creado, prendido

Future perfect

io (tu, etc.) avera' sido creado, prendido

Conditional perfect

io (tu, etc.) averi'a sido creado, prendido

Verb Structure Examples








estos omes

loros amigos



ave sido

aveva sido


va ser


avera' sido

va aver sido

averi'a sido

vijilado(s) por la polisi'a.

multo admirado(s) por todos.

recomendado(s) por los otros.

abondante(s) en la jida'.

atacado(s) por los soldados.

acusado(s) por suos enemigos.

obliviado(s) por el governo.

buscado(s) por Interpol.

escutado(s) por el congreso.

oi'do(s) por el conselio.


Note: Before adding a suffix, if the word ends in an unstressed vowel, remove it.
If the suffix is marked with an asterisk, move this final vowel to the end of the word,
but if there's no final vowel, put the letter e at the end.
able to receive action of verb: (-ar verb) -able, (-er verb) -ible, e.g. bevible (drinkable).
abstract idea (formed from adjective): -ida', e.g. vero (true), verida' (truth).
abstract idea (formed from verb): (-ar verb) -ansa, (-er verb) -ensa, e.g. importante (important), importansa (importance).
active adjective from verb: (-ar verb) -ante, (-er verb) -ente, e.g. caminante (walking).
adverb: -mente (change any final -o to -a before adding -mente), e.g. rapidamente (quickly).
ability to receive action of verb: (-ar verb) -ablida', (-er verb) -iblida', e.g. beviblida' (drinkability).
conditional: (-ar verb) -ari'a, (-er verb) -eri'a, e.g. parlari'a (would speak).
container: -ero, e.g. salero (salt shaker).
diminutive: *-et-, e.g. casa (house), caseta (little house); canson (song), cansonete (little song).
-ever: -ciera, e.g. cienciera (whoever). Note: Don't remove the final vowel with this suffix.
fractions: -ieme, e.g. dos tresiemes (two thirds).
full of (based on noun): -oso, e.g. ventoso (full of wind, windy).
future tense: (-ar verb) -ara', (-er verb) -era', e.g. parlara' (will speak).
habitual or professional doer: (-ar verb) -ador, (-er verb) -edor, e.g. travaiador (worker).
imperative: (-ar verb) -a, (-er verb) -e, e.g. corre! (run!).
infinitive: (-ar verb) -ar, (-er verb) -er, e.g. parlar (to speak).
inhabitant or member (based on place or group): -ano, e.g. italiano (Italian).
instance of action of the verb: (-ar verb) -ata, (-er verb) -ita, e.g. caminata (walk).
instrument, device, or tool: (-ar verb) -adora, (-er verb) -edora, e.g. lavadora (washing machine).
-ism: -ismo, e.g. capitalismo (capitalism).
-ist: -ista, e.g. comunista (communist).
juvenile creature: *-el-, e.g. cane (dog), canele (puppy); gato (cat), gatelo (kitten).
language (based mainly on nation or area or culture): -ese, e.g. japonese (Japanese).
make (formed from adjectives): -isar, e.g. oscurisar (to make dark).
-ologist: -o'logo, e.g. antropo'logo (anthropologist).
-ology: -oloji'a, e.g. antropoloji'a (anthropology).
ordinal numbers: -e'simo, e.g. cuatre'simo (fourth).
past participle (passive) or adjective from it: (-ar verb) -ado, (-er verb) -ido, e.g. parlado (spoken).
place for the action of the verb: (-ar verb) -adero, (-er verb) -edero, e.g. manjadero (dining room).
plural: (after vowel) -s; (after consonant) -es, e.g. libros (books), cansones (songs).
present participle (active): (-ar verb) -ando, (-er verb) -endo, e.g. correndo (running).
present tense: (-ar verb) -a, (-er verb) -e, e.g. prende (take or takes).
preterite: (-ar verb) -o', (-er verb) -io', e.g. prendio' (took).
imperfect: (-ar verb) -ava, (-er verb) -eva, e.g. parlava (were speaking or was speaking).
receiver of action: (-ar verb) -ado, (-er verb) -ido, e.g. el cosinado (the cooked one).
store (based on merchandise): -eri'a, e.g. paneri'a (bakery).
superlative (like -est): *-i'sim-, e.g. suave (soft), suavi'sime (softest).
tree or plant (based on fruit or vegetable): -era, e.g. pomera (appletree).
affectionate: *-in-, e.g. cane (dog), canine (doggy).
again, back (formed from verb): re-, e.g. repintar (to repaint).
former, ex- (formed from noun): ecse-, e.g. ecsepresidente (ex-president).
undo (formed from verb): des-, e.g. desconectar (to disconnect).

Cardinal Numbers[]

zero one two three four five six seven eight nine ten eleven twelve
sero uno dos tres cuatro sinco sis sete oto nove dies dies uno dies dos

twenty thirty thirty-five forty fifty sixty seventy eighty
venti trenta trenta sinco cuarenta sincuenta sisenta setenta otenta

ninety one hundred two hundred one thousand two thousand one million
noventa sento dos sento mil dos mil un milion (de)

two million
dos miliones (de) mil miliones (de) un milion de miliones (de)

Note: The word for and, i, is not used in numbers. The comma is used as
a decimal point, and periods may be used to separate thousands from
millions, etc., and hours from minutes, etc.

Ordinal Numbers[]

zeroeth first second third fourth fifth sixth
sere'simo une'simo dose'simo trese'simo cuatre'simo since'simo sise'simo

seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelth
sete'simo ote'simo nove'simo diese'simo dies une'simo dies dose'simo

twentieth thirtieth fortieth fiftieth sixtieth
vente'simo trente'simo cuarente'simo sincuente'simo sisente'simo

seventieth eightieth ninetieth one hundredth two hundredth
setente'simo otente'simo novente'simo sente'simo dos sente'simo

one thousandth two thousandth one millionth two millionth
mile'simo dos mile'simo milione'simo dos milione'simo
mil milione'simo un milion de milione'simo

Note: Alternatively, ordinal numbers may be expressed by putting nu'mero before the cardinal number, and if this is attached to a noun, it's placed
after the noun instead of before it: el libro nu'mero tres. Fractions are
formed with the suffix -ieme instead of -e'simo. The noun half is meta',
and quarter is cuarto or cuatrieme. The adverb first is primero, and the
adverb half is medio.

Days of the Week, Months, and Seasons[]

Monday lunedi'a

Tuesday martedi'a

Wednesday mercoledi'a

Thursday jovedi'a

Friday venerdi'a

Saturday sa'bado

Sunday domingo


janero febrero marso abril maio junio iulio agosto septembre octobre novembre disembre


spring summer autumn winter

primavera estivo otonio inverno

Note: Dates are expressed with cardinal numbers, e.g. el cuatro de febrero
(the fourth of February).