International Auxiliary Languages

Arcaicam Esperantom (Kalman Kalocsay & Manuel Halvelik) 1969


Patrom noses, cuyu estas en chielom, estu sanctigitam Tues nomom. Venu Tues regnom, plenumighu Tues volom, Cuyel en chielo, ityel ankez sur terom. Panon noses cheyutagan donu nosod hodiez. Cay pardonu nosod nies shuldoyn, cuyel ankez nos pardonaims shuldantoyd noses. Cay ne conducu nosoyn en tenton, sed liberigu nosoyn malbones. Amen


Arcaicam Esperantom is a constructed language created to act as a fictional 'Old Esperanto,' in the vein of languages such as Old English. It was proposed by the Hungarian poet Kalman Kalocsay, and created by Manuel Halvelik.

Many of the features of Arcaicam Esperantom were inspired by Vulgar Latin.

Changes in Arcaicam Esperantom

  • Articles: There is no definite article in Arcaicam Esperantom, however, there is an indefinite article, unlike in Modern Esperanto. The indefinite article is unn, which also corresponds to the number one.
  • Endings:
    • Nouns have six endings in Arcaicam Esperantom: -om/-oym, nominative singular/plural; -on/oyn, accusative singular/plural; -od/oyd, dative singular/plural. Adjectives agree with the endings of the noun, replacing the -o- of the endings with -a-.
    • The genitive form of a noun is formed by changing -om/-oym to -es/-eys: de domo (of a house) becomes domes (house's).
    • In adverb form, -e becomes -oe, and -aŭ becomes -ez.
  • Orthography: The following letters of modern Esperanto are replaced as follows in Arcaicam Esperantom: c (replaced with tz), ĉ (replaced with ch), f (replaced with ph), ĝ (replaced with gh), ĥ (replaced with qh), j (replaced with y), ĵ (replaced with j), k (replaced with c before a, o, or u, or with qu before e or i), ŝ (replaced with sh), ŭ (replaced with u or w), and v (replaced with w).
  • Pronouns: The following pronouns of modern Esperanto are replaced as follows in Arcaicam Esperantom: mi (replaced with mihi), vi (replaced with tu, or wos in plural), li (replaced with lui), ŝ (replaced with eshi), ĝ (replaced with eghi), ni (replaced with nos), ili (replaced with male ilui, and female sihi)
  • Verbs:
    • Commands: The command form can take the plural ending (-y) in Arcaicam Esperantom.
    • Infinitives: If modern Esperanto's verb root (that is, not counting the modern infinitive ending -i) ends in an e or i, the verb infinitive ends in -ar. (criar → krii). Otherwise, the verb infinitive ends in ir. (estir → esti).
    • Personal Conjugations: After marking the tense of the verb (-as present, -is past, -os future, -us conditional) as in modern Esperanto, the -s of the verb conjugation is replaced with a person ending: -ms, first person singular/plural; -s, second-person singular; -t, third-person singular; -it second- and third-person plural.
  • Vocabulary: Forms usually formed with mal- in normal Esperanto instead have their own words.